Authorship and Artificial Intelligence Tools Policy

Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools like ChatGPT or other Large Language Models may not be considered or listed as a paper’s author because these tools cannot take responsibility for the work, sign copyright or license agreements, or assert the presence or absence of conflict. Authors who choose to utilize AI tools in the creation of a manuscript must adhere to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines established in February 2023 by making fully transparent and disclosing their use of these tools in the writing of text; production of images, tables, or other elements; collection and/or analysis of data; and any other potential usage. This disclosure must appear in a separate section of the paper and must include a detailed account of which AI tools were used, how they were employed, and which portions of the paper resulted from their usage. Any text generated by AI tools that appears in the paper must also be footnoted on the first page. Authors hold full responsibility for the entirety of their manuscript, including any portions generated by AI tools, and therefore authors are accountable for any violation of publication ethics.