Winners of the 2002 National Medal of Science

More information can be found at the National Science Foundation Web site.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES:

James E. Darnell, Rockefeller University - A leader in researching how cells retrieve information from DNA, Darnell and colleagues achieved the first direct evidence for RNA processing and for signaling genes from the cell surface. His early quantitative studies on animal viruses showed how to demonstrate the chronology of viral RNA and protein synthesis. Public Information Contact: Joseph Bonner, Rockefeller University, Voice (212) 327-8998, Fax (212) 327-7876, E-mail bonnerj@rockefeller.edu

Evelyn M. Witkin, Rutgers University - Witkin was largely responsible for creating the field of DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. She showed a repair process in bacteria by observing that slowing the growth rate of bacteria cultured in the dark prevented the accumulation of a class of ultra-violet ray induced mutants, which became known as the dark repair mechanism. Public Information Contact: Joseph Blumberg, Rutgers University, Voice (732) 932-7084 ext. 652, Fax (732) 932-8412, E-mail blumberg@ur.rutgers.edu

CHEMISTRY:

John I. Brauman, Stanford University - Brauman advanced scientific knowledge by demonstrating differences in chemical reactivity in the presence or absence of solvent, making it possible to infer the role solvent plays in chemical stability and reactivity. He developed techniques for exploring and enhancing understanding of energy transfer and its effects on chemical dynamics. Public Information Contact: Dawn Levy, Stanford University, Voice (650) 725-1944, Fax (650) 725-0247, E-mail dawnlevy@leland.stanford.edu

ENGINEERING:

Leo L. Beranek (ret.), BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Mass. Beranek designed new communications and noise reduction systems for World War II aircraft and made other military technology advances. In music, his seminal 1962 text, Music Acoustics and Architecture, developed from his research of 55 concert halls throughout the world became a standard for many years beyond its publication. Public Information Contact: Mark Marchand, BBN Technologies (subsidiary of Verizon), Voice (518) 396-1080, E-mail mark.a.marchand@verizon.com

MATHEMATICS:

James G. Glimm, Stony Brook University - Glimm is noted for his outstanding contributions to shock wave theory, which explains the intense compression in natural phenomena, such as air pressure in sonic booms. His work in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics had a major impact on mathematical physics and probability. Public Information Contact: Pat Calabria, Stony Brook University, Voice (631) 444-9540, Fax (631) 444-7922, E-mail patrick.calabria@sunysb.edu

PHYSICAL SCIENCES:

W. Jason Morgan, Princeton University - Morgan is creditied with explaining two profound concepts - plate tectonics and mantle plumes - the essential underpinnings of modern seismology, volcanology and mantle geochemistry. Development of plate tectonics has revolutionized the geophysical study of the Earth and its history. Public Information Contact: Steven Schultz, Princeton University, Voice (609) 258-5729, Fax (609) 258-1301, E-mail sschultz@princeton.edu

Richard L. Garwin, Council on Foreign Relations - Garwin invented and patented magnetic resonance techniques now used in medical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the 1960s and 1970s, his inventions laid the foundation for superconducting electronic circuitry. He proposed many U.S. military innovations, and he is a top adviser to the nation's leadership in a wide range of scientific issues, safety of nuclear weapons and arms control. Public Information Contact: - Marie Strauss, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, N.Y. Voice (212) 434-9536, Fax (212) 4349832, E-mail mstrauss@cfr.org

Edward Witten, Institute for Advanced Study - Witten is the world leader in "string theory," the attempt to describe in a unified way all the known forces of nature. His earliest papers produced advances in quantum chromodynamics, describing the interactions among the fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) that make up all nuclei. Public Information Contact: Georgia Whidden, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J., Voice (609) 734 8239, E-mail gwhidden@ias.edu

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